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China's strategic path to green development

Time: 2018-03-08 16:14:36

Only by vigorously developing the green economy can we effectively break through the bottleneck of resources and environment and occupy the initiative and favorable position in the long-term economic and social development.

The green concept has been put forward for more than 50 years with the continuous questioning of the problems existing in the traditional mode of industrialization and urbanization。 This is the reflection of human beings on their own production and way of life。

In 1962, Carson, an American, published silent spring, reflecting on the environmental damage caused by traditional industrial civilization and drawing attention from all walks of life to environmental protection。 In 1972, the club of Rome published the limits to growth, which seriously questioned the sustainability of the high-consumption, high-pollution growth model of the industrialized countries of the west。

But at the time, green ideas focused on the end of pollution. In 1987, the world commission on environment and development published "our common future", which stressed the importance of improving the efficiency of existing resources and reducing pollution emissions through the development and effective use of new resources. In 1989, British environmental economist pearce et al. first put forward the concept of green economy in the green economy blueprint, emphasizing the integration of economic development and environmental protection through appropriate valuation of resources and environmental products and services, so as to achieve sustainable development.

In the past two years, under the dual pressure of economic recovery and climate change, the United States, the European Union, Japan and the republic of Korea have put forward green development strategies and implemented "green new policies"。 The rapid development of green economy represents a new trend of international economic development。 China is also making strategic choices for development。

Choose the realistic demand of green development

Cracking the inevitable requirements of resource and environment constraints in China. At present, China is in the stage of rapid development of industrialization and urbanization. According to international experience, this process requires the consumption of a large amount of resources and energy; Only when per capita income reaches about $10,000 will the growth rate of energy consumption and pollution emissions per capita slow down, and finally remain stable or decline slightly. Although China is rich in total resources, its per capita share of resources is low. The per capita share of water resources and arable land is only 28% and 43% of the world average respectively, and the per capita reserves of oil and natural gas are less than 10% of the world average. At the same time, industrial waste water, waste gas and solid waste emissions maintained a high growth, causing great pressure on the ecological environment. Deterioration of water quality in major rivers and lakes; Serious soil erosion and desertification; Large-scale mining of mineral resources causes land subsidence, water level decline, vegetation destruction, etc. The damage to people's health caused by environmental problems happens from time to time.

安徽快3The inevitable requirement of expanding domestic demand. After the international financial crisis, the global economic structure is facing major and profound adjustment. China's economic growth is highly dependent on the international market, and the pattern of high investment rate and low consumption rate is bound to be unsustainable. Take the energy conservation and environmental protection industry as an example. From international experience, in the 1970s, the investment in energy conservation and environmental protection accounted for about 33% of the total fixed asset investment in Japan, which not only helped solve the resource and environmental problems in the period of economic take-off, but also effectively drove economic growth. China's energy conservation and environmental protection industry has a huge market. In 2008, the total output value reached 1.55 trillion yuan, and more than 37 million people were employed. According to conservative estimates, the total output value of the energy conservation and environmental protection industry will double in the next three years.

Accelerating the transformation of economic development pattern and improving international competitiveness are inevitable requirements。 At present, major countries in the world have taken new energy, new materials, bio-medicine, energy conservation and environmental protection as the focus of a new round of industrial development to seize the commanding heights of future economic development。 Compared with traditional industries, the gap between China and developed countries in some new technology fields is small。 Such as new energy, China has initially formed a large scale, relatively complete system of new energy industry, plus broad market prospects, is expected to form a cost advantage compared with developed countries, compared with the developing countries have a unique competitiveness。 Vigorously developing the green economy can promote the optimization and upgrading of the industrial structure, form new economic growth points, and win the initiative in the international economic and technological competition。

The inevitable requirement of tackling climate change. The Chinese government attaches great importance to addressing climate change, and has formulated and implemented a national plan to address climate change. China has pledged to reduce carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40% to 45% compared with 2005 by 2020, and to increase the proportion of non-fossil energy in primary energy consumption to around 15% by 2020. To achieve this goal, we must vigorously adjust the economic structure and energy structure, accelerate the development of strategic emerging industries and modern service industries, and transform economic development from mainly relying on increasing consumption of material resources to mainly relying on scientific and technological progress, improving the quality of workers, and innovation in management, so as to turn the economy green.

安徽快3Five industrial focus points

安徽快3The green economy is supported by the upgrading and upgrading of traditional industries and oriented to the development of green emerging industries. While maintaining steady economic growth, it promotes technological innovation, creates job opportunities, and reduces the consumption of resources and energy by economic and social development and its negative impact on the ecological environment.

First, upgrading and upgrading traditional industries. We will strengthen research, development and introduction of technologies for resource conservation and environmental protection, and carry out technological transformation of key industries, enterprises, projects and processes to improve the efficiency of resource production and control pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. We will formulate stricter technical standards for the comprehensive use of environment, safety, energy, water and resources, and strictly control the scale of industries that consume a lot of energy and cause a lot of pollution. We will shut down in accordance with the law a number of backward production facilities that waste resources, pollute the environment and do not provide safe production. Using information technology to transform and upgrade traditional industries.

Second, energy conservation. It is estimated that China's energy saving potential, which is technically feasible and economically rational, exceeds 400 million tons of standard coal, which can drive investment of over one trillion yuan. To promote the development of the energy conservation industry, we need to step up research and development of key and common technologies for energy conservation, equipment and components, and focus on energy conservation technologies and equipment for low-grade waste heat power generation, high-efficiency energy-saving motors, high-performance heat insulation materials, and the utilization of medium-and low-concentration gas across a wide range of areas. Second, we will take fiscal and tax measures to promote the spread and application of mature technologies, equipment and products, and continue to implement the "ten key energy conservation projects" and "projects to benefit the people with energy conservation products." Third, we need to innovate mechanisms and vigorously develop the energy conservation service industry.

Third, comprehensive utilization of resources. China accumulates nearly 7 billion tons of industrial solid waste, and a large number of waste resources have not been recycled and utilized. With the increasing accumulation, there is a large space for industrial development. First, we will organize key projects for the circular economy, such as comprehensive utilization of associated mineral resources and bulk solid waste, recycling of "urban mineral" food and kitchen waste, and comprehensive utilization of straw. Second, vigorously promote the development of remanufacturing industry. Third, we should strengthen the construction of renewable resources recycling system, and build and improve the "trinity" renewable resources recycling system based on urban community and rural classified recycling stations and professional recycling as soon as possible, with the distribution market as the core and classified processing as the purpose. Fourth, we need to promote the international recycling of renewable resources and enhance the capacity of international renewable resources acquisition.

Fourth, new energy industry。 New energy has the characteristics of low carbon and clean, and currently provides almost one fifth of the world's electricity。 Wind power is growing by 30 percent a year, solar by more than 40 percent, and clean energy is expected to account for 32。2 percent of primary energy by 2050。 China has great potential for new energy development。 The annual amount of renewable energy resources can reach 7。3 billion tons of standard coal, but the current development amount is less than 50 million tons of standard coal, leaving huge room for improvement。 In recent years, China's new energy rapid development。 Solar thermal area ranks first in the world; In 2009, the installed capacity of wind power exceeded 20 million kw, ranking second in the world, and the scale under construction reached 10 million kw。 The number of megawatt nuclear power units under construction has reached 19; China's first large-scale megawatt solar photovoltaic power generation demonstration project has been launched。 The use of biomass energy has also developed rapidly。

Fifth, the environmental protection industry. According to the study, the multiplier of environmental protection investment on GDP is about 1.4. It is estimated that during the 12th five-year plan period, environmental protection investment will be about 3.1 trillion yuan, and the increase of GDP will be about 4.34 trillion yuan. First, we need to strengthen water environmental protection. We will accelerate the construction of urban sewage treatment plants and supporting pipe networks, advance the prevention and control of water pollution in key areas, and promote the construction of urban sewage recycling facilities with severe water shortages. Second, we need to strengthen environmental protection. We will further develop desulfurization facilities for coal-fired power plants, and accelerate comprehensive treatment of sulfur dioxide in key energy-consuming industries. We will accelerate the implementation of demonstration projects to control nitrogen oxides in coal-fired power plants and motor vehicles. Implement the clean air action plan; Third, the construction of solid waste treatment facilities should be strengthened. We will accelerate the construction of urban household waste treatment facilities, promote the construction of garbage incineration power plants, vigorously promote the harmless disposal of sludge and the construction of medical and hazardous waste treatment facilities, and strengthen the comprehensive treatment of heavy metal pollution.

In addition, the green economy also includes vigorously developing strategic emerging industries such as electronics technology, biology, aerospace, new materials and oceans.

Policy measures to develop a green economy

We will improve the policy system and the incentive mechanism. We will further reform prices for resource products, implement reform plans for the prices of refined oil products and taxes and fees, and improve the pricing mechanism for natural gas. We will continue to implement policies on differential electricity prices, desulphurization prices, additional electricity prices for coal-bed methane power generation, and on-grid electricity generation with excess heat and pressure, and improve the mechanism for managing electricity prices for renewable energy power generation and sharing costs. We will implement and improve the collection and use management of sewage and garbage treatment fees, and raise the payment standards for heavy metal pollutant discharge fees. We will work to establish a mechanism for compensating for ecological damage. We will improve the system of paid use of mineral resources. We will increase tax and financial support for the green economy.

Strengthen planning guidance and implement work responsibilities。 China's 11th five-year plan for national economic and social development listed energy conservation and emission reduction as binding targets for the first time, set a number of major projects for energy conservation and emission reduction, environmental protection and the elimination of backward production capacity, and implemented a strict assessment system for energy conservation and emission reduction by province。 Through the joint efforts of various aspects, China's energy consumption per unit of GDP has been reduced by 14。38%, sulfur dioxide emissions by 13。14%, and chemical oxygen demand emissions by 9。66% from 2006 to 2009。 Practice has proved that the formulation of scientific and comprehensive, targeted, strong operational planning, in line with China's national conditions, has achieved remarkable results。 At the same time, when we draw up the outline of the national economic and social development plan for the 12th five-year plan period, we need to highlight the importance of developing a green economy。 Further clarify the guiding ideology, development goals and main measures。 At the same time, we need to promptly study and formulate the "twelfth five-year plan" and longer term special medium - and long-term plans for developing green economy, energy conservation, emission reduction, ecological protection, and new energy。 In practical work, it is necessary to further clarify the responsibilities of governments at all levels in energy conservation and emission reduction, as well as the assessment and evaluation system, and strengthen supervision and inspection to ensure that all work is implemented。

We will focus on independent innovation and strengthen scientific and technological support. We will strengthen technological innovation systems and capacity building, break through bottlenecks in core and key technologies, and protect intellectual property rights. We will make breakthroughs in a number of key and common technologies in areas such as energy efficiency, clean use of coal, comprehensive pollution control, new energy, biotechnology, aerospace, and new materials. We will accelerate the transformation and industrialization of scientific and technological achievements, and increase the spread and application of advanced achievements and technologies. Actively introduce, digest and absorb international advanced technology.

We will increase funding and implement key projects。 Intensify financial support for green economy at all levels, accelerate the "ten major energy conservation projects", resources recycling engineering, the construction of large-scale environmental governance, hydropower, nuclear energy, wind energy, solar energy and other support to speed up the development, vigorously promote efficient energy-saving environmental protection products, implementation of clean production and technical innovation, actively build green construction, green traffic system, the formation of green economy in a most direct and most effective demand。

Improve the service system and optimize the market environment. We will promote the new mechanism of energy contract management and explore various modes of implementation. Encourage BOT and other construction and operation modes. We will carry out pilot franchising schemes for flue gas desulfurization, and standardize franchising schemes for urban sewage and waste treatment. We will improve access standards, break down local protections, and create a level playing field for businesses.

We will strengthen publicity and education and advocate green consumption. We will strengthen education on resources and environmental conditions, and advocate the concept of green and moderate consumption. We will actively implement energy efficiency and environmental labeling systems to improve consumers' green spending power.

Developing a green economy is both a tough and protracted battle. We need to develop a green economy as an important way to adjust the economic structure and change the growth model, and promote sound and rapid economic and social development.


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